Former President Benigno S. Aquino III of the Philippines, scion of the country’s most prominent pro-democracy political family, died on Thursday in Manila. He was 61.

His sister Pinky Aquino-Abellada said the cause was “renal disease secondary to diabetes.”

During his presidency, from 2010 to 2016, Mr. Aquino stood up to China, oversaw economic growth and passed an important reproductive rights bill, but he later faced scandals that marred his legacy.

Mr. Aquino was, in effect, Philippine political royalty, the son of two political icons in a country where family ties are paramount. He was swept into office after the death in 2009 of his mother, former President Corazon C. Aquino.

She in turn had risen to prominence as the widow of Benigno S. Aquino Jr., a prominent politician who was assassinated in 1983.

That assassination set in motion a surge of opposition that culminated in the 1986 popular uprising known as People Power, which ended the two-decade dictatorship of President Ferdinand E. Marcos and paved the way for Mrs. Aquino to assume the presidency.

In a statement, Senator Imee Marcos, a daughter of the former president whom the Aquinos had helped oust, paid tribute to the younger Mr. Aquino for his “kind and simple soul.”

Following Mrs. Aquino’s death in 2009, her son was carried to the presidency on a groundswell of sentimental support, succeeding an unpopular president, Gloria Macapagal Arroyo. When his term ended in 2016, he was in turn succeeded by the current strongman president, Rodrigo Duterte.

In a national address toward the end of his term, Mr. Aquino described his initial reluctance to run for president.

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